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Osteoporosis: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become brittle due to loss of bone mass.
Patients with osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures.
These fractures occur more frequently at the wrists, spine and hip joints (joints katischion).
In osteopenia bone loss is less than that in osteoporosis and fracture risk is remote. Patients who have osteopenia at risk of suffering from osteoporosis and is much more than patients with osteoporosis.
What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis can occur at any age. It is much more common in women. 80% of patients suffering from osteoporosis are women.
It is estimated that 1 in every 2 women and 1 in every 4 men over the age of 50 will experience a fracture in their lifetime due to osteoporosis.
Causes of Osteoporosis
Factors increasing the risk for bone loss and osteoporosis are numerous. For some of these factors we can take preventive measures and thereby remove the risk of disease. For other factors, this is impossible.
Among the factors we can not change include the following:
1. Gender: Women are affected by osteoporosis more often than men
2. Age: Increased age increases the risk for osteoporosis
3. The physical stature: The short stature and thin women are at greater risk for osteoporosis
4. Family history: There is a family predisposition to osteoporosis. If a member of a family suffering from osteoporosis or fracture present, the chances of another member of that family to suffer the same is increased
5. Ethnic origin: White and Asian origin women at greater risk of contracting the disease. Female black and Spanish origin women have less risk

Other factors that increase the risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis as:

1. Hormones: Low blood levels of estrogen due to abnormalities of the season or because of menopause is the cause of osteoporosis in women. Men when testosterone levels are low in an increased risk of contracting the disease
2. Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder that can cause osteoporosis, including
3. Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D from diet
4. Drugs that increase the risk of osteoporosis such as corticosteroid
5. Reduced physical activity, sedentary and prolonged stay in bed are situations that weaken bones
6. Smoking not only damages the lungs and the heart and bones
7. Excessive drinking leads to bone loss and fractures

Symptoms of osteoporosis
The bone loss causes no symptoms. Osteoporosis develops silently.
The diagnosis is usually caused when a fracture after a relatively short-hitting innocent violence ???????????.?????????????? is fractures in the hip area. Also, the progressive increase of kyphosis (hunchback) and simultaneous reduction of the amount may be suggestive of osteoporotic fractures in the bodies of vertebrae
The diagnosis of osteoporosis
The best way to control bone health is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using the DXA test (DEXA scan).
This test helps make the diagnosis of osteoporosis, assess the strength of the bone and the treatment effect.
Treatment of osteoporosis
The diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. For this purpose requires regular exercise and healthy lifestyle.
Medications used to treat osteoporosis include:

1. Bisphosphonates such as pamidronate, alendronate, and other rizedronati
2. Estrogen and drugs that affect estrogen receptors
3. Raloxifene (SERMS)
4. Calcitonin
5. Teriparatide (osteoparagogika drugs)
6. Ranelic Strontium
7. Vitamin D and calcium supplements (not drugs, supplements are used, but they contribute to the prevention of disease)

Preventing osteoporosis
1. Diet rich in calcium: The good dietary sources of calcium include dairy low-fat (yogurt, milk, cheese), foods enriched in calcium (orange juice, cereals, breads)
2. Vitamin D: The sun exposure is needed to allow the body to synthesize vitamin D. Vitamin D helps the intestines to absorb calcium and strengthens bones. In foods that provide us with vitamin D include fish, liver, egg yolk and milk
3. Regular physical exercise such as walking, cycling, jogging, swimming, dancing, tennis and other sports
4. Healthy lifestyle by avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption